One of the major features of the Fedora Server Edition is the Cockpit administrative console. This web-based interface provides administrators with a powerful set of tools for controlling their system. Cockpit relies upon low-level tools like polkit and sudo to make authorization decisions to determine what a user is permitted to do. By default, most operations on a Fedora system are granted to users in the ‘wheel’ group. People granted administrator access to Cockpit (and other tools through shell access) are generally added to the wheel group in the /etc/group file.
This works reasonably well for single-user systems or very small environments where manual edits to /etc/group are maintainable, but in larger deployments, it becomes very unwieldy to manage lots of entries in /etc/group. In these cases, most environments switch over to using some form of a domain controller (such as FreeIPA, Microsoft Active Directory or a custom LDAP setup). These domain controllers allow users to be managed centrally, allowing administrators to make changes in a single place and have this be automatically picked up by all enrolled systems.
However, there is a problem: historically the group processing on Fedora (provided by glibc) has forced users to choose between using centrally managed groups (such as those provided by a domain and maintained by SSSD) or groups maintained on the local system in the /etc/group file. The behavior of glibc is specified in /etc/nsswitch.conf to decide which of the two mechanisms will “win” in the event of a conflict. This means that administrators need to decide up front whether their groups must all come from a domain controller or some locally.
Over the last few months, I worked on adding a new feature to the glibc name-service functionality to enable “group merging”. The net effect is that now for all lookups of a group, glibc can be configured to check both the local files and the remote service and (if the group appears in both), combine the list of member users for both representations of the group into a single response.
Thus, it becomes possible to provide both local and central administrators into the wheel group. This can come in handy for example if an administrator wants to keep one or more local accounts available to do disaster recovery in the event that the machine loses access to the remote users (such as a bad update resulting in SSSD not starting).
Of course, this functionality does not come without a cost: because all merging lookups will try both data sources, it can result in a performance hit when operating against groups that otherwise would have been answered only by the local /etc/group file. With caching services like SSSD, this impact should be minimized.
Fedora and glibc upstream
The group merging patch has been submitted to the upstream glibc project but has not yet been merged into a release. It narrowly missed the 2.23 merge window, so it is currently slated for inclusion into glibc 2.24.
However, Carlos O’Donell has taken the patch and applied it to glibc in Fedora Rawhide (which will become Fedora 24), so it will be possible to take advantage of these features first in Fedora 24, before anyone else. (For anyone interested from other distributions, the patch should apply cleanly on 2.23 and likely with minimal effort atop 2.22 as well, since little changed besides this.)