Sausage Factory: Advanced module building in Fedora

First off, let me be very clear up-front: normally, I write my blog articles to be approachable by readers of varying levels of technical background (or none at all). This will not be one of those. This will be a deep dive into the very bowels of the sausage factory.

This blog post is a continuation of the Introduction to building modules in Fedora entry I wrote last month. It will assume a familiarity with all of the concepts discussed there.

Analyzing a more complicated module

Last time, we picked an extremely simple package to create. The talloc module needed to contain only a single RPM, since all the dependencies necessary both at build-time and runtime were available from the existing base-runtime, shared-userspace and common-build-dependencies packages.

This time, we will pick a slightly more complicated example that will require exploring some of the concepts around building with package dependencies. For this purpose, I am selecting the sscg package (one of my own and discussed previously on this blog in the article “Self-Signed SSL/TLS Certificates: Why they are terrible and a better alternative“).

We will start by analyzing sscg‘s dependencies. As you probably recall from the earlier post, we can do this with dnf repoquery:

dnf repoquery --requires sscg.x86_64 --resolve

Which returns with:

glibc-0:2.25-6.fc26.i686
glibc-0:2.25-6.fc26.x86_64
libpath_utils-0:0.2.1-30.fc26.x86_64
libtalloc-0:2.1.9-1.fc26.x86_64
openssl-libs-1:1.1.0f-4.fc26.x86_64
popt-0:1.16-8.fc26.x86_64

and then also get the build-time dependencies with:

dnf repoquery --requires --enablerepo=fedora-source --enablerepo=updates-source sscg.src --resolve

Which returns with:/home/sgallagh/modulebuild/builds/module-talloc-master-20170526153440/results/module-build-macros-mock-stderr.log

gcc-0:7.1.1-3.fc26.i686
gcc-0:7.1.1-3.fc26.x86_64
libpath_utils-devel-0:0.2.1-30.fc26.i686
libpath_utils-devel-0:0.2.1-30.fc26.x86_64
libtalloc-devel-0:2.1.9-1.fc26.i686
libtalloc-devel-0:2.1.9-1.fc26.x86_64
openssl-devel-1:1.1.0f-4.fc26.i686
openssl-devel-1:1.1.0f-4.fc26.x86_64
popt-devel-0:1.16-8.fc26.i686
popt-devel-0:1.16-8.fc26.x86_64

So let’s start by narrowing down the set of dependencies we already have by comparing them to the three foundational modules. The base-runtime module provides gcc, glibcopenssl-libs, openssl-devel, popt, and popt-devel . The shared-userspace module provides libpath_utils and libpath_utils-devel as well, which leaves us with only libtalloc as an unsatisfied dependency. Wow, what a convenient and totally unexpected outcome when I chose this package at random! Kidding aside, in most real-world situations this would be the point at which we would start recursively going through the leftover packages and seeing what their dependencies are. In this particular case, we know from the previous article that libtalloc is self-contained, so we will only need to include sscg and libtalloc in the module.

As with the libtalloc example, we need to now clone the dist-git repositories of both packages and determine the git hash that we intend to use for building the sscg module. See the previous blog post for details on this.

Creating a module with internal dependencies

Now let’s set up our git repository for our new module:

mkdir sscg && cd sscg
touch sscg.yaml
git init
git add sscg.yaml
git commit -m "Initial setup of the module"

And then we’ll edit the sscg.yaml the same way we did for the libtalloc module:

document: modulemd
version: 1
data:
  summary: Simple SSL certificate generator
  description: A utility to aid in the creation of more secure "self-signed" certificates. The certificates created by this tool are generated in a way so as to create a CA certificate that can be safely imported into a client machine to trust the service certificate without needing to set up a full PKI environment and without exposing the machine to a risk of false signatures from the service certificate.
  stream: ''
  version: 0
  license:
    module:
    - GPLv3+
  references:
    community: https://github.com/sgallagher/sscg
    documentation: https://github.com/sgallagher/sscg/blob/master/README.md
    tracker: https://github.com/sgallagher/sscg/issues
  dependencies:
    buildrequires:
      base-runtime: f26
      shared-userspace: f26
      common-build-dependencies: f26
      perl: f26
    requires:
      base-runtime: f26
      shared-userspace: f26
  api:
    rpms:
    - sscg
  profiles:
    default:
    - sscg
  components:
    rpms:
      libtalloc:
        rationale: Provides a hierarchical memory allocator with destructors. Dependency of sscg.
        ref: f284a27d9aad2c16ba357aaebfd127e4f47e3eff
        buildorder: 0
      sscg:
        rationale: Purpose of this module. Provides certificate generation helpers.
        ref: d09681020cf3fd33caea33fef5a8139ec5515f7b
        buildorder: 1

There are several changes from the libtalloc example in this modulemd, so let’s go through them one at a time.

The first you may notice is the addition of perl in the buildrequires: dependencies. This is actually a workaround at the moment for a bug in the module-build-service where not all of the runtime requirements of the modules specified as buildrequires: are properly installed into the buildroot. It’s unfortunate, but it should be fixed in the near future and I will try to remember to update this blog post when it happens.

You may also notice that the api section only includes sscg and not the packages from the libtalloc component. This is intentional. For the purposes of this module, libtalloc satisfies some dependencies for sscg, but as the module owner I do not want to treat libtalloc as a feature of this module (and by extension, support its use for anything other than the portions of the library used by sscg). It remains possible for consumers of the module to link against it and use it for their own purposes, but they are doing so without any guarantee that the interfaces will remain stable or even be present on the next release of the module.

Next on the list is the addition of the entirely-new profiles section. Profiles are a way to indicate to the package manager (DNF) that some packages from this module should automatically be installed when the module is activated if a certain system profile is enabled. The ‘default’ profile will take effect if no other profile is explicitly set. So in this case, the expectation if a user did dnf module install sscg would be to activate this module and install the sscg package (along with its runtime dependencies) immediately.

Lastly, under the RPM components there is a new option, buildorder. This is used to inform the MBS that some packages are dependent upon others in the module when building. In our case, we need libtalloc to be built and added into the buildroot before we can build sscg or else the build will fail and we will be sad. By adding buildorder, we tell the MBS: it’s okay to build any of the packages with the same buildorder value concurrently, but we should not attempt to build anything with a higher buildorder value until all of those lower have completed. Once all packages in a buildorder level are complete, the MBS will generate a private buildroot repository for the next buildorder to use which includes these packages. If the buildorder value is left out of the modulemd file, it is treated as being buildorder: 0.

At this point, you should be able to go ahead and commit this modulemd file to git and run mbs-build local successfully. Enjoy!

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